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Metal working processes
Source: | Author:wenlikeji | Publish time: 2016-03-16 | 2055 Views | Share:
Metals are shaped by processes such as:


casting – molten metal is poured into a shaped mold.
forging – a red-hot billet is hammered into shape.
rolling – a billet is passed through successively narrower rollers to create a sheet.
laser cladding – metallic powder is blown through a movable laser beam (e.g. mounted on a NC 5-axis machine). The resulting melted metal reaches a substrate to form a melt pool. By moving the laser head, it is possible to stack the tracks and build up a three-dimensional piece.
extrusion – a hot and malleable metal is forced under pressure through a die, which shapes it before it cools.
sintering – a powdered metal is heated in a non-oxidizing environment after being compressed into a die.
machining – lathes, milling machines, and drills cut the cold metal to shape.
fabrication – sheets of metal are cut with guillotines or gas cutters and bent and welded into structural shape.
Cold-working processes, in which the product’s shape is altered by rolling, fabrication or other processes while the product is cold, can increase the strength of the product by a process called work hardening. Work hardening creates microscopic defects in the metal, which resist further changes of shape.


Various forms of casting exist in industry and academia. These include sand casting, investment casting (also called the "lost wax process"), die casting, and continuous casting.
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